Responsive 3-Columns to 1-Column --> breaking in Outlook

I'm working on a responsive email that has a section of 3 columns that stack into 1 column in mobile. It's working fine everywhere but... you guess it: Outlook 2007/2010/2013. In those versions, the left column is where it's supposed to be, but the center and right columns are not aligned at the top -- they are falling below.

I tried using an MSO conditional to close a TD after the left column and open a new TD before the center column, and again to close a TD after the center column and open a new TD before the right column. However the MSO statements are completely screwing up my layout everywhere (where there were no problems before).

Here's my code:

Any help would be much appreciated!! Thank you in advance!!

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